Förvaltningsakademin

En blogg från centrumbildningen Förvaltningsakademin vid Södertörns högskola.

Förvaltningsprocessen och rättegångsbalken 2018 Ribbing, Michaela Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

The aim of the thesis Administrative procedure and the Code of Judicial Procedure isto analyse the role or function of the Code of Judicial Procedure in administrative procedure and the significance of administrative procedure in this regard.

Public administration is of great importance in Swedish society and concerns personal and economic values that are important for citizens. Administrative courts review the decisions of the public administra­tion in an administrative procedure. The administration of justice by adminis­trative courts is therefore an important part of the rule of law in Sweden.

Administrative procedure is a specific form of procedure with its own judicial structure in three instances. Because of the structure and design of the proce­dure, however, sometimes a rule in the Code of Judicial Procedure is used. This thesis identifies three typical situations where this happens. However, the Code of Judicial Procedure was drafted exclusively with regard to procedure in general courts and is based on procedural principles that are different from those on which administrative procedure is based. Against the background of the characteristics that form the basis of administrative procedure, it is therefore not obvious that a rule in the Code of Judicial Procedure should serve as guid­ance in administrative court procedure. The difficulty lies in determining in which procedural situations it is appropriate to use the Code of Judicial Proce­dure in administrative procedure. This uncertainty can be perceived as a prob­lem, since the Code of Judicial Procedure could, in some cases, be used without reflection. It cannot be precluded that such a use would involve a risk that the characteristics of administrative procedure may not be fully observed.

The thesis identifies and analyses cen­tral characteristics of administrative procedure, which are used as an analytical framework to establish how procedural situations are resolved in administrative procedure compared with general procedure. Additionally, the thesis analyses why and how the Code of Judicial Procedure is used in administrative pro­cedure, i.e., how such use is manifested through the three points of contact. Against this background, the thesis discusses how administrative procedure can be developed through legislation and case law.

What logics drive the choices of public decision-makers? Nilsson, Jens Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3038-8419 2018 (Engelska) Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

This thesis explores what logics drive the decisions of public decision-makers. More specifically, and drawing on new institutional theory, this topic is investigated from the perspective of how institutions, i.e. the formal and informal patterns of rules and practices, influence public decision-makers. New institutionalism has a variety of ideas on how this decision-making occurs and recent research in this tradition emphasizes the importance that context has for the empirical support of these ideas. At the same time, studies exploring, contrasting and converging new institutional ideas, and how these vary depending on context i.e. their conditionality, are lacking. In this thesis, I set out to address this knowledge gap and, moreover, to examine the role of personal values for the new institutional ideas on how institutions affect the public decision-makers. Personal values have not been emphasized in new institutional studies but successfully explained decision-making from other perspectives. By adding this dimension, I seek to explore whether individual factors, in this case the personal values the public decision-makers bring with them into the institutional context, affect the way they make decisions. Consequently, the aim of this thesis is to explore what decision-making logics that are at play among public-decision-makers and how this varies depending on context and personal values. This exploration is conducted by deriving and testing hypotheses on decision-making, from rational choice institutionalism and sociological institutionalism, in two different contexts, parliaments and collaborative management, within the same national arena. Parliaments have a homogenous composition of actors, i.e. politicians, whereas collaborative management arenas are constituted by the inclusion of both public and private actors in decision-making, resulting in a more heterogeneous composition. Through a study of local parliaments and wildlife conservation committees (a form of collaborative management on the regional level) in Sweden, the aim of the thesis is fulfilled by survey and interview analyses of decision-making in regards to different policy issues. The results show that there are different decision-making logics at play in the parliamentary case compared with the collaborative management case. Further, personal values influence the decision-making logics among the public decision-makers. The implications of these results are, firstly, that the conditionality of new institutionalism, as suggested in earlier research, is empirically prevalent in the studied cases and, secondly, that personal values play a role for what decision-making logics that are at play. Further research is encouraged to delve deeper into the results, preferably through qualitative studies that could complement the primarily quantitative focus of this thesis, and through studies of other national contexts than Sweden.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor

Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2018.

Serie

Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544

Vad händer i själva verket?: Om styrning och handlingsutrymme i Skolverket under åren 1991–2014 Magnusson, Eva Maria Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen. ORCID-id: Dalmatiner2 2018 (Svenska) Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)

Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with questions of governance, control and discretion in state agencies. It is grounded on a case study of the Swedish National Agency for Education (Skolverket), from its prelude in the late 1980s, to its start in 1991, through several governments, seven ministers and four direktor generals, up tp 2014.

The empirical part of the thesis follows the periods of the four director generals. The study is based on a vast number of documents, supplemented with interviews. For the analysis, a model of governance and control was condensed from the literature. This model attempts to cover both the political governing of agencies and the internal organizational control of agencies. This model was furthermore developed into three ideal type control styles: Old public management/ Agency, New public management/ Actor, and New public governance/ Arena.

Analysis showed that Skolverket started out as a new type of agency, resembling the ideal type of NPG/ Arena, but over time, with an increasing pressure from the political level, it gradually turned into a more “normal” state agency, at one period resembling the ideal type of NPM/ Actor but finally becoming more similar to the ideal type of OPM/ Agent, however with still strong internal traits of an Arena.

Further analysis showed that the actual governance and control featured several crucial characteristics that proved to be of importance for the amount of discretion left for the directors and officials of the agency. These characteristics were the degree of 1) unified or plural value systems, 2) partial or comprehensive use of control “tools”, and 3) high or low degree of specificity. These three characteristics were combined into eight different types of roles, each with a specific type and level of discretion, from the most restricted (“Authoritarian”) to the most unrestricted (“Laissez-faire”) and six other roles in between. It is proposed that this scheme of roles form a novel way of analysing the level and distribution of discretion in agencies.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor

Uppsala: Företagsekonomiska Institutionen , 2018. , s. 216

Interpreting Policy Convergence Between the Left and the Right Wennström, Johan 2019

Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Linköpings universitet, Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen består av fyra artiklar om svensk utbildnings- och migrationspolitik och en kappa som syntetiserar de enskilda studierna. Den första artikeln undersöker hur svenska lärares yrkesstolthet och inneboende drivkrafter att göra ett bra jobb har påverkats av vänster- och högerpolitikers syn på läraryrket. Den andra artikeln undersöker hur marknadsutsättningen av det svenska skolväsendet har påverkat kunskapsnivån bland svenska elever. Den tredje artikeln bygger vidare på de två första studierna och undersöker synen på ämneskunskaper i skolans styrdokument och dess påverkan både på läraryrkets ställning och elevers kunskaper. Den fjärde artikeln undersöker det geografiska mönstret i kommunplaceringen av nyanlända flyktingar i Sverige.

Avhandlingens övergripande bidrag är att den, genom att studera två olika politikområden, visar att vänstern och högern i Sverige har en omedveten benägenhet att konvergera politiskt. Trots att man anser sig stå på olika sidor i politiken visar empirin i de fyra studierna att vänster- och högerpolitiker i främst Socialdemokraterna och Moderaterna har dragit åt samma håll i både utbildnings- och migrationspolitiken.

Den första artikeln visar att politiker både till vänster och till höger ofta har varit skeptiska till lärarnas inflytande i skolan och sett det som ett hinder för elevernas frihet och lärande, vilket har bidragit till att underminera lärarnas professionella etos. Den andra artikeln visar att både vänster- och högerpolitiker underlät att utforma regelverket för skolkonkurrensen så att privata utförare styrdes mot att erbjuda en undervisning av hög kvalitet. I stället uppstod en konkurrens med höga betyg. Den tredje artikeln visar likaledes att skolans konstruktivistiska kunskapssyn, som både har reducerat lärarnas yrkesroll till förmån för elevernas eget arbete och förstärkt utvecklingen mot en konkurrens med betyg, har stöttats av såväl vänster- som högerpolitiker. Den fjärde artikeln visar att nyanlända flyktingar främst har tagits emot av mindre kommuner i avfolkningsbygder präglade av hög arbetslöshet. I artikeln framhålls att denna kontraproduktiva policy har sin grund i både vänster- och högerpolitikers välmenade idéer om flyktingmottagandet som först lanserades på nationell nivå.

Då statsvetare i såväl Sverige som internationellt ofta har antagit att vänster och höger utgör politikens motpoler erbjuder avhandlingens huvudresultat ett nytt perspektiv. Sannolikt kan det generaliseras till ytterligare politikområden. Kappan ger även en nydanande förklaring till politisk konvergens som går ut på att vänstern och högern, åtminstone i en svensk kontext, delar en moraluppfattning som främst betonar individens frihet och rättigheter medan andra, balanserande moraliska värden tonas ned. En implikation av detta är att det skapar utrymme för nya partier som positionerar sig i den nisch som därigenom uppstått.

Kulturgeografin tar plats i välfärdsstaten: Vetenskapliga modeller och politiska reformer under efterkrigstidens första decennier Pär, Wikman Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to explain why human geography in Sweden became a planning science during the postwar period. Human geography had developed a sophisticated use of abstract models. The proliferation of models within in the social sciences was an international phenomenon during the postwar period. Actors within human geography in Sweden embraced this trend and strived towards making the constructions of models the methodological core of the discipline. Human geography, as an independent discipline, was being defined during this period. Simultaneously, human geography’s position within Swedish society was also being defined. This led a group of geographers, who were very much in favor of human geography as a science of models, to align themselves with the needs of the expanding welfare state.

The group of actors, who reformed their discipline by making a specific form of geographical expertise essential to the welfare state, are referred to as geographers of planning. The most important actors within this group was, the not yet world famous, Torsten Hägerstrand and his colleague Sven Godlund. During the crucial years of the mid-1950s to the early-1960s, Hägerstrand held a position at Lund University while Godlund was engaged in a number of public investigations. Godlund regularly hired Hägerstran’s students and those same students used their experiences working for the public investigations to write their term papers. Through Godlund’s and Hägerstrand’s relationship a generations of human geographers was trained in planning practices and human geography was defined, within the public administration, by the works of Godlund and Hägerstrand.

The most widely disseminated models were constructed from the German geographer Walter Christaller’s central place theory. By translating the general arguments of the theory into codified models, the theory was turned into a tool for planners. Thus the theoretical skills of human geographers where embedded in the practices of practical planning. This process turned the difference between research and planning into a difference of degree, rather than a difference of practice. During the municipal reforms of the 1960s the Swedish municipalities were remade to closer resemble the ideal of the central place theory. Through that reform the relationship between human geography and social planning was consolidated, making human geographers experts of planning. A labor market was created for geographers but it also placed an onus on the geographical institutions to supply the labor force for that market.

Laga efter läge: Statsråds föreställningar om styrning i Regeringskansliet 2019 Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Noreland, Lena

This thesis concentrates on two questions: What beliefs do ministers have of appropriate steering in the Swedish core executive Regeringskansliet (RK)? Do they believe that RK is a politically steered organization as it is usually described, or as a throughout political organization, as some political scientists have recently depicted it? RK embraces two institutional subcultures: one non-political with permanent civil servants and firm rules and regulations for work processes, the other one political, where work conditions are more adaptive. Analyses of beliefs that ministers may have, build on information from interviews with 35 ministers in governments from 1991 to 2014. They answered questions about their steering of preparation work in cases, performed by civil servants. They described their choice of strategies and means for steering. Their explicit memories of actual steering activities have been used for inferences of their beliefs. The research method is typically qualitative. Two organizational theories serve as basis for the analyses. One is the legal bureaucratic model, mainly according to Max Weber. Either ministers steer the work of civil servants hierarchically, giving instructions directly to them. Or else, they steer with political advisers as proxies, thereby involving them in the hierarchical steering. The other one is a cadre theory – an unorthodox choice, which reflects a recent idea saying that RK is a throughout political cadre organization where ministers, staff members as well as civil servants are political office holders. All ministers stressed that work processes in RK ministries are steered by them, i.e. they believe RK to be a politically steered organization. Ministers chose steering strategies according to institutional demands and possibilities and according to their beliefs of what strategies match their individual ambitions for the government position. Most ministers stated that they gave instructions directly to civil servants. But approximately three out of ten ministers said that they steered using political advisors as proxies, in some cases with far-reaching mandates to act independently. The ministers focused both on steering formulation of the matter per se and preparation procedures when it was important for the political outcome.

From minister perspectives the political staff can be identified as a cadre. Evidence for civil servants being seen as political cadres was scarce. One minister had practiced typical cadre steering in specific task forces, parallel to hierarchical steering in the ordinary ministry organization. Some ministers had used detached cadre-oriented means. In their opinion, informality in steering procedures promoted the performance of civil servants. One minister mentioned that all work in RK ultimately results in government decisions, and that is why RK may be characterized as an outright political organization. Almost all ministers who used political advisors as proxies, belonged to coalition governments. Their choice of steering strategy can be understood as an adjustment to the heavy workload that coordination of politics imposes on them.

Kornevs, Maksims Assessment of Application of Participatory Methods for Complex Adaptive Systems in the Public Sector 2019 Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning Abstract [sv]

Offentliga sektorns tillhandahållande av tjänster är resultatet av ett komplext adaptivt system och involverar ett stort antal intressenter från olika institutioner och organisationer. I en tid av snabba förändringar av kraven och förväntningar från offentliga sektorn förändras behövs förändringsprocesser som involverar intressenter från olika nivåer och positioner.

Participativa metoder ger möjlighet att involvera ett brett spektrum av intressenter. Även om participativa metoder visat sig framgångsrika i enstaka fall, och tillämpningar när det gäller att involvera medborgarna i myndighetsbeslut är väl beskrivna, så finns mycket litet bevis på metodens roll när det gäller yrkesverksamma.

Denna studie undersöker tillämpningen av participativa metoder för stödja förändringsprocesser i den offentliga sektorn ur ett komplext adaptivt systemperspektiv. Syftet med denna tvåstegs explorativa sekventiella blandade metodstudie med deskriptiva delar är att först kvalitativt undersöka vilka förändringsbehov i den offentliga sektorn som kan dra nytta av participativa metoder och sedan att tillämpa participativa metoder i sex experiment för att bedöma hur effektiva sådana metoder är i att stödja förändringsprocesser av komplexa adaptiva system inom den offentliga sektorn.

Fyra metoder har innefattats: participativ simulering, gamification, Q-metodik och participativ modellbyggnad. Vart och ett av fallen har poängsatts utifrån ett ramverk. Fallen har hämtats från områdena vägnät, transit och hälsovård.

Analys av experimenten påvisar flera trender. För det första visade experiment på fältnivå, där expertis och kunskap utanför en organisation krävs, en starkare demokratisering och fokus på att kartlägga mångfalden jämfört med andra nivåer. På samma sätt visar experiment på delsystemnivå mer sannolikt att fokus ligger på att nå konsensus och använda deltagare för rådgivning. För det andra har ett mönster påvisats mellan högre deltagande nivå av en metod, högre grad av fördelning mellan deltagarna och bättre resultat av en bedömning. En korrelation observerades mellan övergripande bedömning och andra applikationsparametrar: kommunikationseffektivitet, kunskap om orsaker och effekter och ledarskapsdirektiv.

Erkännandet av att den offentliga sektorn är ett komplext adaptivt system visade sig vara mer närvarande i de serviceorienterade områdena än inom infrastrukturen. Storskaliga problem på organisationsnivå eller till och med på fältnivå visade sig vara mer komplexa än problem på delsystemnivå.

Participativa metoder visade sig vara effektiva för att handlägga frågor av komplex natur. Särskilda styrkor var förmågan att tillhandahålla öppna strukturer för att tänka utanför lådan och att identifiera flaskhalsar och begränsningar i system. Möjligheten att identifiera skillnader i intressentperspektiv visar sig vara värdefull och kan samlas från ett brett spektrum av källor i och kring en deltagarmiljö.

Framgångsrika participativa metoder kräver hög kommunikationseffektivitet, användandet av retroaktiv utvärdering och måste baseras på samarbete med intressenter på hög nivå. Kostnader kan överskugga alla fördelar om problemet inte är komplext nog eller om förberedelserna inte har utförts på lämpligt sätt. Tillgång till rätt personer, stöd från organisationen och motiverade deltagare, liksom det rätta valet för nivån på deltagande visade sig vara avgörande för framgång.